US and War in Yemen
Yemen crisis or civil war was once pure domestic politically unstable factor as Houthis and the government had history of dissent more than a decade. In 2011, Arab Spring changed the political dynamics of Arab states where common people resort to take power and demolish monarchies. It is to be noted that Yemen is poorest among all Arab states where uprising forced President to hand over powers to his Deputy.
President had been fighting instability, corruption, attacked by rebels, food security and winning loyalties of military and elite. Houthis took advantage of the weaknesses of government and marched towards cities in 2014. At first they captured northern Saada province and later Sanaa, the capital.
Another point must be kept in mind that Houthis are Zaidi shias which are found backed by regional shia state Iran against toppling the regime. Saudi Arabia shares border with Yemen hence felt insecurity in given strategic calculus. It formed alliance of all regional Arab states and vowed to help President in office. They resort to military operation where US, UK and France offered Intelligence. It makes Yemen a conflict cauldron. Until march 2018, 10,000 Yemenis have been killed while fighting along with 40,000 collateral causalities while millions in displacement as addition.
The increase in parties in the conflict and role of super powers in backing Saudi Arabia further complicated the crisis where in Houthis are getting support from Iran. This makes it much more complex in ethnic, national and transnational context. Previously many efforts of negotiations and reaching to agreements have been failed but US is now determined to resolve the conflict. US has exported weapons of billions of dollars which are being used by Saudi Arabia in Yemen.
USA sanctioned Iran due to its hostile behavior in region and offensive posture against neighbors. US fears Iran is preparing for a war that is why Trump administration has sought withdrawal from JCPOA so that Iran can be controlled.
Being familiar with all the development in Yemen, US ambassador to Sanaa has expressed his views saying there is no military solution to current politico security crisis in Yemen thus efforts should be by all parties in this regard.
He further call upon the need of consensus of international community and he believes Yemeni people are convinced on political solution. On the contrary, Yemeni Ambassador to Washington aspired to seek political solution in agreement with all parties saying his government supports the US and UN efforts to win peace in Yemen. He further highlighted a significant point in the US saying Houthis will never come to negotiation table unless there is certain level of military pressure on them
The most terrible part of this conflict resolution is to facilitate rebels and recognize their legality wherein state may have to surrender some of its components. It is to be noted that this conflict is similar of Afghanistan where dissent splinter groups have to politically integrate.
Within the United States, there is realization that weapons wold to Saudi Arabia should be monitored because of alleged use of US missile by Saudi forces against Houthis resulted in multiple casualties. It has developed as Saudi Arabia and Iranian proxy war under the carpet which seeks status quo in the region. Unless military exert maximum pressure on Houthis, their conviction of talks will be difficult. US, being influential player of International System can utilize its position to settle down the issue. If Iran can be convinced, conflict can be resolved whit in short period of time. It is up to the US how it sees its Middle East Strategy.